Tuesday, 31 May 2016

Ryley Nevills

Ms. Kurtz


May 29, 2016                       

                                                                   Life without a kilt:
                                       How immigration changed my attire

If my ancestors hadn’t immigrated to Canada, I might be writing this blog in a kilt, with the haunting sounds of the bagpipe playing in the background…well, not actually, but my life would definitely have been different from what I know.
As you can probably guess, my ancestors immigrated to Canada from Scotland in 1953. Specifically, my mom’s grandparents immigrated from Glasgow, Scotland to Hamilton, Ontario, bringing with them 3 of their 6 children; the other 3 were grown and married by 1953. The 3 children they brought with them included my maternal grandmother Sheena Brown. The older siblings eventually followed their parents and also immigrated to Canada a few years later. My maternal great-grandma, Mary Brown, was actually born in Ireland but was raised in Scotland and always considered Scotland to be home. My maternal great grandpa, Robert Brown was born in Glasgow. My mom’s paternal grandparents were both born on the east coast of Canada and their families had been settled there since the late 1800’s. My dad’s paternal and maternal grandparents all have Scottish roots, so the common denominator here appears to be Scotland which is why I will focus on my Scottish roots for the purpose of this blog.

My maternal great grandfather, Robert Brown, owned his own business, a limo service, in Glasgow, in the early 1950s. However, unemployment was high in Glasgow in 1953, ranging from 28-30% (Scottish Affairs, Hasard , 1953). This factor and a weak economy led to poor business for Robert Brown and he had heard from friends who had immigrated to Canada that there were better financial opportunities to be had across the pond. He heard about a steel company in Hamilton, Ontario who were looking to hire and who offered good wages and benefits. Since things were looking bleak in Scotland, Robert decided to make the move in the hopes of providing a better life for his family. Meanwhile in Canada things were booming. The following excerpt from a magazine article describes the atmosphere of that time period:  “After a decade of depression and 6 years of war, Canadians are bursting with optimism in the 1950s. It is a time of prosperity and mass consumerism for most. Products Canadians want are readily available, and Canadians have the money to buy them, and they do” (Vincent, 2001). No wonder immigrants were attracted to Canada during that time period, and my ancestors were no exception. So Robert Brown set off for Canada, solo and by ship, in search of a job and a home in the new, promised land. A few months later he had secured a job at Stelco, where he continued to work for 25 years, before his eventual retirement. He purchased a home, and sent for his family.
Although it took some time, the family settled in to their new home and became accustomed to the Canadian way of life. My great grandma found employment at St. Joseph’s Hospital in Hamilton and the kids were enrolled in school and within no time had lost their Scottish accents. The major push/pull factors in the decision to come to Canada included 1) the ability to provide a better life financially for the family (push); 2) the 3 children and numerous extended family left behind in Scotland (pull); 3) the excitement of the prosperity and future job opportunities for the children (push); 4) the business that my great grandfather had to leave behind (pull). However, the decision was ultimately made to immigrate to Canada and the move was a successful one for my ancestors, but what would my life now look like had they remained in Scotland?

One difference would be the ability to get a part time job. As the charts above show, the unemployment rate for young people in Glasgow is substantially higher than it is here in Canada. In addition, the cost of living in Glasgow is for the most part higher than it is here in Toronto, but wages are not higher, therefore one would assume that the overall quality of life would be somewhat less.

Indices Difference
Consumer Prices in Glasgow are 12.32% higher than in Toronto
Consumer Prices Including Rent in Glasgow are 0.36% higher than in Toronto
Rent Prices in Glasgow are 23.18% lower than in Toronto
Restaurant Prices in Glasgow are 35.04% higher than in Toronto
Groceries Prices in Glasgow are 2.91% lower than in Toronto
Local Purchasing Power in Glasgow is 5.54% lower than in Toronto

Also, had my ancestors remained in Glasgow, I would now be living in a city of over 600,000 people (UK population, 2016)  instead of a town of about 40,000. That would mean a different lifestyle entirely, faster paced and more hectic. No four wheelers, no dirt bikes, no fields. The most popular sport in Scotland is football (aka soccer) and ice hockey and box lacrosse are not popular, so the sports I’ve played for my entire life I would never have been exposed to. Finally there’s the kilt issue…2 of my great uncles who were married in Scotland were married in kilts, piped down the aisle in bagpipes. If I lived there, that might have been my fate one day, so I can honestly say I’m very grateful to my great grandpa, Robert Brown, for taking the chance and coming to Canada, where men don’t wear kilts, even on their wedding day!

Works Cited: 


Vincent, Mary, Canadians At Work, Home & Play, 2001

Sheena Brown , personal interview, May 2016

Where Would I Be Without Immigration? - ISU

Where Would I Be Without Immigration?
Life in Lithuania

Whenever I get asked where my heritage is from, I usually tell them England and Scotland, as that is where my maternal roots originate. Although, what most people are surprised to hear is that my paternal roots are actually from Lithuania.  Lithuania is a country in the southernmost of Europe's Baltic states, which borders Poland, Latvia, and Belarus.  

Map of Lithuania

In 1935, my great grandmother Petronėlė Tekorytė immigrated to Toronto, Ontario from Vilnius, Lithuania.  Just after World War I, her parents died and her half sister took over their land, and kicked her off.  At this time, there was a large amount of poverty in Lithuania, and with little money, Petronėlė chose to come to Canada for a better life.  Her brother was already here, and had arranged for her to marry his friend, also a Lithuanian immigrant, named Bronus Ukelis.  It was a tough transition for my great grandmother coming to Canada, as she knew little English and didn't have much education.  As a result, she had to start working right away as a seamstress in Toronto in order to make a living.

My great grandmother's immigration record in Lithuanian

Around the 1940s to 1990s, Lithuania was under Soviet rule, which made life difficult for many. Soviet Lithuania was isolated from the non-Soviet world in terms of travel restrictions, not allowing Lithuanians to practice their Catholic religion, as well as economic crisis.  If my great grandmother did not immigrate to Canada, clearly, at that time my life in Lithuania would not be ideal.  If my family was living there at that time, our religion would not be supported under the Soviet rule, as many Roman Catholic churches as well as monasteries were closed.  As well, our financial situation would not be ideal, as the economy was poor and there were many economic hardships during this time.

If I were a teen living in Lithuania today, however, the living and working conditions would be reasonably better compared to life under Soviet rule.  To begin, in terms of rights and freedoms, Lithuanian residents may travel freely within the country and internationally, and generally enjoy economic freedom.  As well, men and women have the same legal rights, (although women generally earn less than men per hour worked).  However, Discrimination against ethnic minorities, who comprise about 16 percent of the population (2), remains a problem.  For example, the Polish minority has demanded the right to spell their names in their original form and to use bilingual location signs in areas with large Polish populations. However, Lithuanian law indicates that public signs must be written only in Lithuanian.  Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law and is largely upheld in practice.  However, nine traditional religious communities, including the Roman Catholic Church, enjoy certain government benefits, including annual subsidies, that are not granted to other groups.

With regards to healthcare, Lithuania provides free state-funded healthcare to all citizens and registered long-term residents. Private healthcare is also available in the country. The standard of healthcare in Lithuania needs investment, but medical staff are well qualified.  Health centres only provide outpatient care, but do offer a wide variety of specialist services. Medical services provided by health centres include, general practice, maternity care, child health care, and dental care. They also provide emergency medical aid as well as laboratory, radiology, and other diagnostic services.  Also, hospitals and clinics exist in all major towns and cities throughout the country. Patients are admitted to hospital either through the emergency department or through a referral from a doctor or specialist. Once a patient is admitted, treatment is controlled by the hospital doctors. However, the conditions in some hospitals in Lithuania are poor, but the standard of care is good.

In Lithuania, education is set up very similar to how we go to school in Canada.  Generally, it follows a regular elementary and secondary school system.  Education is organized in 4 main cycles: pre-school education (until age 5 or 6), pre-primary education (1 year, between age 5-7), primary education (4 years, between age 6-11), basic education (6 years, between age 10-17), and upper secondary education (two years, between age 16-19).  As a result, not much in terms of education would have changed from my life here in Canada, besides language.

Although rights and freedoms, healthcare, and education are adequate, the employment and economic potential in Lithuania is one of the lowest in the European Union.  Economic development is affected by low living standards (in 2011, the poverty and social exclusion rate was above 30 percent) and minimum wages (€ 290 per month, (or $422 Canadian)) (1).  This resulted in a high emigration rate, and reduced attractiveness of the Lithuanian labour market and in turn, encourages emigration (the emigration rate in Lithuania has been one of the highest in the European Union since 2000) (1) and risk of poverty trap.  Therefore the high unemployment rate in adults and youth have promoted more emigration as the total number of Lithuanian residents fell from 3.5 million in 2001 to 3 million by the beginning of 2012 (15 percent) (1).

In conclusion, overly, I believe my life in Canada would be reasonably better than if I were a Lithuanian citizen.  Although healthcare, education, and rights and freedoms are sufficient, the unemployment and economic status in Lithuania are quite poor which would prove difficult if I were to find a job and make a living.  As a result, I am grateful my great grandmother immigrated to Canada to better her life, as I know it has also bettered mine and my family's.

Vilnius, Capital City of Lithuania

Works Cited
European Parliament. Economic and Scientific Policy. Social and Employment Situation in Lithuania. By B. Gruzevskis and Igna Blaziene. Rept. no. IP/A/EMPL/NT/2013-02. Brussels: n.p., 2013. Print.
“Freedom in Lithuania.” Freedom House. N.p., 2015. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2015/lithuania>.
“Healthcare in Lithuania.” Europe-cites. N.p., 2004. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://europe-cities.com/destinations/lithuania/health/>.

Ukelis, Stella, and Aldona Mason. Telephone interview. 26 May 2016.
Pictures: 1. http://www.ucsj.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/lithuania.jpg
               2.  (personal picture, immigration record)
               3. http://eurodoc2011.ljms.lt/images/24.jpg

Monday, 30 May 2016

Ty Inglis

Ms. Kurtz


May 29, 2016

New opportunities in a new country

Who would I be without immigration?

Before commencing this project, I had a vague idea of where my family had emigrated from. Realistically, I only knew that my family had a Scottish background. When speaking to my Grandfather on my Father’s side, I learned “[His] Mother, Catherine Crawford, had emigrated from Edinburgh, Scotland in 1912, because of the bright future she believed Canada offered her.  She moved by herself at 19 years of age, leaving her family behind because she believed in doing so it would an impact her life positively.” (Inglis).

Prior to completing this project, I was unaware of why my Grandfather’s Grandmother had emigrated from Edinburgh, Scotland to Whitby, Canada. It was not only because Canada was a new and optimistic country, but also because a new country meant new opportunities. Catherine Crawford (My Great Great Grandmother) “was born on December 21, 1893, and later immigrated to Canada in 1912, at age 19. And the reason for moving to Canada was because of new farmland opportunities.” (Inglis). In speaking with my Grandmother on my father’s side, I discovered another interesting fact.  I discovered that my maternal Great Great Great Grandfather was named an United Empire Loyalist. He was given a grant of  “200 acres of farmland for remaining loyal to Great Britain when the American Revolution shattered the British Empire.” (Inglis).

Between 1840-1940, “The opportunities were seen as being abroad particularly to America and Australia .” (History of the Scottish) The reason why these two areas were seen as so appealing was because there was “economic depression and mass unemployment” (History of the Scottish) at home. In this time period, the main objective was to find work, wages and new opportunities. There were many push and pull factors that were influential on one’s decision to leave their homeland:

Push Factor
Pull Factor (To Canada)
Collapse of the social structure in Europe
Closing of the American frontier
Transformation of agriculture and industry
New developments in dryland farming
Precipitous increase and population
Canadian Government’s first concentrated policy to promote immigration
Unemployment and economic depression
Completion of the first continental railway and building of otherwise
(Canadian Immigration-early 1900’s)

Upon doing some research about life in Scotland in 2016,  I found that there are some subtle differences in their culture, economy and lifestyles but nothing that greatly set us apart as a society. Therefore I would have to speculate that my life would be somewhat comparable to what it is today if my Great Grandmother did not decide to emigrate and I currently resided in Scotland.  
Some slight differences would be the ability to travel abroad.  Because Scotland is so close mainland Europe it makes travelling so much easier and affordable as opposed to living in Canada where the sheer distance and cost makes travelling abroad more unattainable. Another difference between living in Canada as opposed to Scotland is the real estate market.  It is much more expensive to purchase real estate in Scotland than it is in Canada and the size of the properties in Scotland are typically much smaller than those in Canada. Because “there is a big difference in cost of housing and land ownership” (Inglis)  This factor alone would have a large impact on my future lifestyle and my ability to purchase a home of my own someday.   Another example, because I just received my license, I enjoy driving because it makes it so much more convenient for my everyday life. As gasoline is substantially more expensive in Sootland it would make running a car a luxury.. “Gasoline (1 liter) $1.05 in Canada and $2.05 in Scotland.” (Cost of living comparison) Another negative thing about living in Scotland is the hourly wage for the work force. If I was working part time as an under 18 year old in Scotland, I would be making “3.87 UKL per hour” (National minimum wage and National) Converting that to Canadian dollars, it is approximately $7.40. This is approximately $3 less per hour than what I currently make at my part time job here in Canada. This, in addition to the higher living expenses in Scotland, would make it a considerably more challenging to maintain the standard of living I enjoy here in Canada.

Statistics below show the cost of living is much higher in Scotland than Canada in almost all aspect of everyday living such as eating out in restaurants to renting living spaces.

Consumer Prices in Edinburgh are 13.96% higher than in Toronto
Consumer Prices Including Rent in Edinburgh are 5.87% higher than in Toronto
Rent Prices in Edinburgh are 10.05% lower than in Toronto
Restaurant Prices in Edinburgh are 26.00% higher than in Toronto
Groceries Prices in Edinburgh are 0.49% higher than in Toronto
Local Purchasing Power in Edinburgh is 15.05% lower than in Toronto

In conclusion, there are some small differences in culture, education and employment when considering life in Scotland as opposed to life in Canada however these seem very insignificant when you consider those who have backgrounds in the Middle East or Far East where every aspect of life are drastically different from that in Canada. If I had the choice of living in Scotland or Canada, I would choose Canada because the small differences make a big difference to me. Canada is a great place to live.

Works Cited
“Canadian immigration-early 1900s.” Canadian immigration-early 1900s. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.british-immigrants-in-montreal.com/canadian-immigration-early-1900s.html>.
“cost of living comparison between Toronto and Edinburgh.” cost of living comparison between Toronto and Edinburgh, United Kingdom. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2016. <http://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/compare_cities.jsp?country1=Canada&city1=Toronto&country2=United+Kingdom&city2=Edinburgh>.
“Edinburgh Scotland maps and orientation.” Edinburgh Scotland maps and orientation. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://ca.images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0WTTKs3VkxXLG4A044.7olQ;_ylu=X3oDMTIyc3U1Z2IxBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1nBG9pZAMxZTJjZjQ1YTQyYTAxMGYyZDM3YWJjZDM2NDY4OTA3ZARncG9zAzQEaXQDYmluZw--?.origin=&back=https%3A%2F%2Fca.images.search.yahoo.com%2Fyhs%2Fsearch%3Fp%3DEdinburgh%2BScotland%2Bmap%26type%3Ddnldstr1202%26fr%3Dyhs-iry-fullyhosted_003%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26hsimp%3Dyhs-fullyhosted_003%26hspart%3Diry%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D4&w=450&h=573&imgurl=www.world-guides.com%2Fimages%2Fscotland%2Fscotland_map1.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.world-guides.com%2Feurope%2Fscotland%2Fedinburgh%2Fedinburgh_maps.html&size=23.2KB&name=%3Cb%3EEdinburgh%3C%2Fb%3E+%3Cb%3EMaps%3C%2Fb%3E+and+Orientation%3A+%3Cb%3EEdinburgh%3C%2Fb%3E%2C+%3Cb%3EScotland%3C%2Fb%3E&p=Edinburgh+Scotland+map&oid=1e2cf45a42a010f2d37abcd36468907d&fr2=piv-web&fr=yhs-iry-fullyhosted_003&tt=%3Cb%3EEdinburgh%3C%2Fb%3E+%3Cb%3EMaps%3C%2Fb%3E+and+Orientation%3A+%3Cb%3EEdinburgh%3C%2Fb%3E%2C+%3Cb%3EScotland%3C%2Fb%3E&b=0&ni=21&no=4&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=1295u1nki&sigb=15k56b24i&sigi=11m6i11ob&sigt=12ffrtds5&sign=12ffrtds5&.crumb=cs2IrHVgj2s&fr=yhs-iry-fullyhosted_003&fr2=piv-web&hsimp=yhs-fullyhosted_003&hspart=iry&type=dnldstr1202>.
“History of the Scottish people-ElectricScotland.” History of the Scottish people-ElectricScotland. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/migration_scotland.htm>.
Inglis, Bruce Robert. Personal interview. N.d.
“National Minimum Wage and National Living Wage rates.” National Minimum Wage and National Living Wage rates. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://www.gov.uk/national-minimum-wage-rates>.
If my ancestors did not immigrate to Canada
I would be…

If you had asked me where my family was from I would have told you right away that I am Irish and Dutch. This is due to the fact that my grandparents on my mom’s side recently immigrated to Canada as they still have their Irish accents. I didn't really know much about their past in Ireland, but according to them after having a brief phone call with them, it’s clear to say that my life would be drastically different in Belfast, Ireland. Without their immigration to Canada I would be living in Northern Ireland with my mother’s side of the family.

I found out that my grandparents were both born in Belfast, Ireland which is the capital of Northern Ireland. Before they immigrated to Canada, my great grandparents came to Canada in 1958 to start a new life with better opportunities. About 12 years later my grandparents named Richard Graham and Sandra Graham were married on January 31, 1970 and on that same day they visited their parents in Canada by plane. After visiting Canada, my grandparents decided to stay because of the different troubles or the push/pull factors that came into play in October 1969 in Ireland.

Once they settled in Canada, they decided to stay in Etobicoke Ontario and in that same year my mother was born. Unfortunately, my grandparents couldn't find their immigration records, but now they have their Canadian Citizenship's.

In Northern Ireland there was intense political and sectarian rioting. Throughout the year of 1969, the violence was rising from the civil rights campaign, which was demanding an end to discrimination against Irish Catholics. The conflict between the Irish Catholics and Protestants lead to bloody rioting, in particular the worst riot was actually in Belfast where my grandparents grew up, and seven people were killed and hundreds wounded. The rioting got worse as the year went on as there was bombing and burning down houses, most of them owned by Catholics, as well as businesses and factories burned down. In addition, thousands of families were driven away from their homes and eventually immigrated to other countries. All of these events lead to the British Army being called as they were deployed to restore state control and peace lines that were built to separate the Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods. They were essentially these giant walls that kept peace, ranging in length from a few hundred yards to over three miles. The walls were made up of various materials such as, iron, brick, and steel that rise to about 25 feet.

The youth unemployment in Ireland is fairly high compared to Canada (27% vs. 13%), according to the CIA World Factbook. This category includes the ages of 15-24, which means that this age group in particular is either in secondary or post secondary schooling. The youth can expect to attend school to age 19, but in Ontario the youth are expected to be in school until age 18. The education and different opportunities for the youth in the future are quite similar, but in Ireland there will be more people left jobless.

Continuing, Ireland's healthcare system is modern with up to date technology similar to Canada’s. It is also free, like Canada, but with the exception of paying high taxes. The level of free coverage depends on your economic health - the poorer it is, the higher your level of coverage. With the help of their healthcare, Ireland’s life expectancy is currently 80 years of age, which is almost as good as Canada’s as they are sitting at 81 years of age.

Many human rights are written in the Irish Constitution that recognizes and declares that people living in Ireland have certain fundamental personal rights. All the citizens in Ireland shall be held equal before the law. You cannot be treated as inferior or superior to any other person in society simply because of their ethnic, racial, social or religious background.

All in all, I believe that the overall quality of my life in Ireland would be relatively comparable to my life here in Canada. Although, I am happy here in Canada as I have a job that helps me bring in some personal income, as it might be difficult to find job opportunities at such a young age. But, I am thankful that my grandparents survived through the troubles, and took the ultimate sacrifice to immigrate to Canada for better opportunities for our family.

Works Cited

"Belfast." Forum for Cities in Transition. 2012. Web. 31 May 2016.

Graham, Richard. Personal Interview. 27 May 2016.

Graham, Sandra. Personal Interview. 27 May 2016.

"The World Factbook: Ireland." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 2016. Web. 31 May 2016.

"BBC ON THIS DAY | 14 | 1969: British Troops Sent into Northern Ireland." BBC News. BBC, 1969. Web. 31 May 2016.

"An Overview of the Irish Health System." An Overview of the Irish Health System. Web. 31 May 2016.

I Would Be.....

If my great grandparents and my grandfather had not immigrated to Canada, I would be a teenager in a minuscule fishing town in the north of England. My grandpa, Dennis Hall, immigrated from Newbiggin by the sea, England; along with his parents John and Isabel Hall. My great grandfather, John G. Hall, moved from England in 1927, on the ocean liner Caronia (Library and Archives Canada), 1 year prior to his wife and son’s immigration, in order for him to find a steady job. My grandpa Dennis, who was 1 and a bit years old at the time, and a 28 year old Isabel immigrated in 1928, arriving in Halifax, Nova Scotia; on the Athenia liner on April 9th (Library and Archives Canada). Later on, in World War II, the Athenia was converted into a troopship, and was the first ship sunk by the opposing German forces (Sinking of SS Athenia). Isabel and John both grew up and met in the small village located in the South East Northumberland (Hall) .Newbiggin by the sea is a fishing port in which traditional coble boats are used, but was once known for its coal mining and a port used for shipping grain (Wikipedia). After World War I, the British economy was still in a depression, with unemployment rising past 8% in 1926, all the way up to 15% in 1932 (Pettinger). These factors, along with the desire to leave a country heavily impacted by the first World War were the push factors for John and Isabel to relocate their new family.
Marriage certificate between my Grandmother and Dennis
Immigration record
(Library and Archives Canada)

Immigration record (Library and Archives Canada)

Immigration record 
(Library and Archives Canada)
Once John had a stable job in the thriving 1920’s Canadian economy, at a job in a coal mine in Minto, his wife and child joined him there (Hall). Their life in Minto was better than a life that England could have offered. Canada was a booming place of opportunity for my great grandparents, and they continued to live there until their deaths in 1974 (Provincial Archives of New Brunswick). If they had not moved to Minto, my grandfather would not have had such a good life, and would not have met the love of his life Edith Alice Fales (Fales). If I had grown up in Newbiggin by the Sea, my life would be quite different. The similarities such as shared English language, and both countries’ relatively low unemployment rates, Ontario’s 7.1% (Stats Canada) with England’s 5.1% (Office for National Statistics) would make my life easier if I had grown up there rather than in Canada, due to if my ancestors had not immigrated. Health care would also be quite similar, as England’s National Health Service (NHS) provides healthcare for the nation similar to Ontario’s OHIP (NHS England). Continuing with similarities, as both nations are closely linked historically, and are both developed countries, their rights and freedoms are very similar. Both Canada and England permitted women the right to vote in 1918 (Women’s Suffrage). The difference that would have changed my upbringing the most is the sheer size difference between the village of Newbiggin by the Sea and Orangeville. The population of Newbiggin is home to 6, 100 people (Newbiggin by the Sea), which in comparison to the vastly larger population of Orangeville which is the home of 27,975 people (City-Data). The change from a small town, to a tiny village would definitely have affected my upbringing, and it most likely would have created a stronger sense of community. IMAG1014.jpg
(Hall, Dennis)
In conclusion I am grateful my ancestors immigrated to Canada as I am proud of their success and with who I have become as a result of my life in a privileged country like Canada.

John G. Hall death certificate
(Provincial Archives of New Brunswick)
Isabel Hall death certificate
(Provincial Archives of New Brunswick)

Works Cited
“Fales, Edith Alice.” 18 June 1949. Vital Statistics from Government Records (RS141). Index to New Brunswick Marriages. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://archives.gnb.ca/Search/VISSE/141B7.aspx?culture=en-CA&guid=1DD56103-9CB9-4543-9C4E-54060FBFF394>.
Hall, Dennis. Dennis and His Friend. N.d. Photograph. Dennis Hall.
- - -. Personal interview. 15 May 2016.
“Hall, Isabel.” N.d. Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Cemeteries. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://archives.gnb.ca/Search/Cemeteries/Details.aspx?culture=en-CA&Key=71918>.
“Hall, John. G.” N.d. Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Cemeteries. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://archives.gnb.ca/Search/Cemeteries/Details.aspx?culture=en-CA&Key=71955>.
“Item: Dennis Hall.” N.d. Library and Archives Canada. Canadian Government. Passenger Lists and Border Entries, 1925-1935 - Nominal Indexes. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/immigration/immigration-records/passenger-lists-border-entry-1925-1935/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=321559&>.
“Item: Isabel Hall.” N.d. Library and Archives Canada. Canadian Government. Passenger Lists and Border Entries, 1925-1935 - Nominal Indexes. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/immigration/immigration-records/passenger-lists-border-entry-1925-1935/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=321753&>.
“Item: John G. Hall.” N.d. Library and Archives Canada. Canadian Government. Passenger Lists and Border Entries, 1925-1935 - Nominal Indexes. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/immigration/immigration-records/passenger-lists-border-entry-1925-1935/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=321882&Item: John G. Hall>.
“Newbiggin by the Sea.” Newbiggin by the Sea. Communtity of Newbiggin, n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.newbigginbythesea.co.uk/>.
“Newbiggin-by-the-Sea.” Wikipedia. N.p., 21 May 2016. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newbiggin-by-the-Sea>.
“Orangeville - Town, Ontario, Canada.” City-Data. N.p.: n.p., n.d. City-Data. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.city-data.com/canada/Orangeville-Town.html>.
“Our vision and purpose.” NHS England. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://www.england.nhs.uk/about/our-vision-and-purpose/>.
Pettinger, Tejvan. “UK Economy in the 1920s.” Economics Help. N.p., 16 Oct. 2012. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/5948/economics/uk-economy-in-the-1920s/>.
“Sinking of SS Athenia.” German U-boat. N.p.: n.p., n.d. German U-boat. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.uboataces.com/battle-athenia.shtml>.
“Unemployment rate.” Office for National Statistics. UK Government, 18 May 2016. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peoplenotinwork/unemployment/timeseries/mgsx>.
Unemployment Rate, Monthly Canada and Provinces Unadjusted. N.p.: n.p., 2016. Stats Canada. Web. 30 May 2016. <http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/statistics/Labour/PDF/UnempRate_Monthly.pdf>.
“Women’s Suffrage.” Wikiepedia. N.p., 28 May 2016. Web. 30 May 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage#Timeline>.